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Associate Professor Chris Wilkins

Associate Professor

SHORE Centre

Associate Professor Chris Wilkins is the leader of the drug research team at SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University. Chris Wilkins has research expertise in drug trends, drug markets, public health, and drug policy. Over the past twenty years he has completed a range of studies of drug use in New Zealand with particular focus on methamphetamine, cannabis, legal highs, ecstasy and the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals. Chris Wilkins has published numerous journal articles on drug use, contributed to three books and regularly reviews manuscripts for Addiction, the International Journal of Drug PolicyDrug & Alcohol Review and Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Chris Wilkins has been an invited speaker at international meetings convened by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), and at the United States National Institute for Drug Abuse Community Epidemiology Working Group (CEWG). He regularly presents papers at the annual meetings of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy (ISSDP).

Associate Professor Chris Wilkins is the leader of the drug research team at SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, College of Health, Massey University. Chris Wilkins has research expertise in drug trends, drug markets, public health, and drug policy. Over the past twenty years he has completed a range of studies of drug use in New Zealand with particular focus on methamphetamine, cannabis, legal highs, ecstasy and the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals. 

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Research Expertise

Research Interests

Drugs, illegal drugs, drug markets, cannabis, methamphetamine, legal highs, synthetic cannabinoids, organised crime, canabis law reform, drug policy

Thematics

Health and Well-being

Area of Expertise

Field of research codes
Economic Theory (140100): Economics (140000):
Epidemiology (111706): Health and Community Services (111708): Health Information Systems (incl. Surveillance) (111711): Medical And Health Sciences (110000): Mental Health (111714): Public Health and Health Services (111700)

Keywords

Drugs, illegal drugs, drug markets, cannabis, methamphetamine, legal highs, synthetic cannabinoids, organised crime, canabis law reform, drug policy

Research Projects

Summary of Research Projects

Position Current Completed
Project Leader 3 16

Current Projects

Project Title: Dark Side of the Net: Exploring and modelling the impact of online illegal drug markets

Date Range: 2019 - 2022

Funding Body: Royal Society of New Zealand

Project Team:

Completed Projects

Project Title: The health and social impacts of 'legal highs' and other drug use on young people in Auckland

New Zealand has experienced successive waves of 'legal highs' containing new psychoactive substances (NPS), including party pills and synthetic cannabis. NPS are popular among young people and have been responsible for increased emergency department admissions, poisonings and mental health admissions. The Government has recently established the world's first pre-market approval regulatory regime for NPS which will allow NPS products assessed as 'low risk' to be legally manufactured and sold. This study will investigate the impact the new NPS regulatory regime has on NPS and other drug use, drug-related harm, substitution between NPS and other drugs, and utilisation of health services among 'at risk' young people. It employs an innovative web-based respondent driven sample (RDS) methodology to survey hard-to-reach frequent partying young people. This is the first of a planned eight surveys to be conducted over the next four years. It will collect important baseline data on recent changes to laws concerning the sale of legal highs and the consequences for substance use of young people. The study findings will evaluate and inform key aspects of the new regulatory regime, including the risk of approved NPS products and effectiveness of retail restrictions and standards.
Read Project Description Hide Project Description

Date Range: 2013 - 2013

Funding Body: Massey University

Project Team:

Research Outputs

Journal

Sznitman, SR., Barratt, MJ., Decorte, T., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S., Potter, G., . . . Wilkins, C. (2019). Do medical cannabis growers attempt to produce cannabis with different cannabinoid concentrations than recreational growers?. Drugs and Alcohol Today. 19(4), 251-256
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., & Noller, G. (2019). Medicinal Cannabis Scheme in New Zealand: lessons from international experience and our own recent drug policy reform setbacks. The New Zealand medical journal. 132(1503), 8-12
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2019). A ‘community enterprise’ model for recreational cannabis: Lessons from alcohol licensing trusts in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy. 67, 72-78
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2019). New Zealand's review of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2013: a missed learning opportunity ahead of the national cannabis law reform referendum?. Addiction. 114(6), 1129-1130
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Rychert, M., Romeo, JS., & Randerson, S. (2019). Smoke in our eyes: The sense partners’ evaluation of the legalisation of cannabis in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 132(1490), 6-9
[Journal article]Authored by: Romeo Nunez, J., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Kumar, R., Tscharke, B., O'Brien, J., Mueller, JF., Wilkins, C., & Padhye, LP. (2019). Assessment of drugs of abuse in a wastewater treatment plant with parallel secondary wastewater treatment train. Science of the Total Environment. 658, 947-957
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Hakkarainen, P., Decorte, T., Sznitman, S., Karjalainen, K., Barratt, MJ., Frank, VA., . . . Wilkins, C. (2019). Examining the blurred boundaries between medical and recreational cannabis–results from an international study of small-scale cannabis cultivators. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. 26(3), 250-258
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Romeo, JS., Rychert, M., Prasad, J., & Graydon-Guy, T. (2018). Determinants of high availability of methamphetamine, cannabis, LSD and ecstasy in New Zealand: Are drug dealers promoting methamphetamine rather than cannabis?. International Journal of Drug Policy. 61, 15-22
[Journal article]Authored by: Romeo Nunez, J., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Rychert, M. (2018). Responding to a new wave of high potency synthetic cannabinoids. New Zealand Medical Journal. 131(1482), 6-9
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sznitman, S., Decorte, T., Hakkarainen, P., & Lenton, S. (2018). Characteristics of cannabis cultivation in New Zealand and Israel. Drugs and Alcohol Today. 18(2), 90-98
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Lai, FY., O brien, J., Thai, P., & Mueller, JF. (2018). Comparing methamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine, codeine and methadone use between the Auckland region and four Australian states using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). New Zealand Medical Journal. 131(1478), 12-20
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2018). Understanding the development of a regulated market approach to new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory. Addiction. 113(11), 2132-2139
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2018). A critical analysis of the implementation of a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances (“legal highs”) in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy. 55, 88-94
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Belackova, V., & Wilkins, C. (2018). Consumer agency in cannabis supply – Exploring auto-regulatory documents of the cannabis social clubs in Spain. International Journal of Drug Policy. 54, 26-34
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2018). A “not-for-profit” regulatory model for legal recreational cannabis: Insights from the regulation of gaming machine gambling in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy. 53, 115-122
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., Parker, K., & Witten, K. (2018). Are government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances perceived to be safer and more socially acceptable than alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs? Findings from a survey of police arrestees in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 37(3), 406-413
[Journal article]Authored by: Parker, K., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., Witten, K.
Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Parker, K., Rychert, M., & Barnes, HM. (2017). Recent Trends in Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Police Detainees in New Zealand, 2010-2015. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 34, 161-172
[Journal article]Authored by: Parker, K., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Lai, FY., Wilkins, C., Thai, P., & Mueller, JF. (2017). An exploratory wastewater analysis study of drug use in Auckland, New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36(5), 597-601
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., & Witten, K. (2017). Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances (‘legal highs’) in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 36(5), 589-596
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., Witten, K.
Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., & Witten, K. (2017). “Lost in translation”: Issues with the establishment of a legal market for “low risk” psychoactive products (“legal highs”) in New Zealand. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. , 1-8
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C., Witten, K.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2017). Thirty-one psychoactive plants exempted from New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act 2013. Addiction. 112(1), 181-182
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Rychert, M. (2017). Recent developments with the New Zealand regulated market approach to ‘low-risk’ psychoactive products. Addiction. 112(1), 34-36
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2016). After the legalisation of cannabis: The Cannabis Incorporated Society (CIS) regulatory model for recreational cannabis in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 129(1433), 74-77
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2016). The case for medicinal cannabis: Where there is smoke there may well be fire. New Zealand Medical Journal. 129(1445), 11-14
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). Legal high industry business and lobbying strategies under a legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, ‘legal highs’) in New Zealand. International Journal of Drug Policy. 37, 90-97
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2016). After the legalisation of cannabis: The Cannabis Incorporated Society (CIS) regulatory model for recreational cannabis in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 129(1433), 74-77
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Wong, KC., Graydon-Guy, T., & Rychert, M. (2016). An exploratory study of the health harms and utilisation of health services of frequent legal high users under the interim regulated legal high market in central Auckland. New Zealand Medical Journal. 129(1431), 51-58
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Parker, K., Prasad, J., & Jawalkar, S. (2016). Do police arrestees substitute legal highs for other drugs?. International Journal of Drug Policy. 31, 74-79
[Journal article]Authored by: Parker, K., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2016). What products are considered psychoactive under New Zealand's legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS, ‘legal highs’)? Implications for law enforcement and penalties. Drug Testing and Analysis. 8(8), 768-778
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). Did we have the wrong debate about elixinol<sup>™</sup> and medicinal cannabis?. New Zealand Medical Journal. 128(1421), 69-70
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution. International Journal of Drug Policy. 26(12), 1273-1278
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Barratt, MJ., Potter, GR., Wouters, M., Wilkins, C., Werse, B., Perälä, J., . . . Blok, T. (2015). Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy. 26(3), 238-249
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2015). Is the recent ban on animal testing of legal high products a fatal blow to the development of a legal market for 'low-risk' psychoactive products in New Zealand?. Addiction. 110(4), 714-715
[Journal article]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Schneider, C., Zobel, F., & Wilkins, CD. (2014). Neuseeland und die Reguliering von Neuen Psychoaktiven Substanzen / Looking for a new way: New Zealand and the regulation of NPS. SuchtMagazin, 6, 41-45. 6, 41-45
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2014). The interim regulated legal market for NPS ('legal high') products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing. Drug Testing and Analysis. 6(7-8), 868-875
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2014). Recent developments with the establishment of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 33(6), 678-680
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., & Parker, K. (2014). The impact of the prohibition of benzylpiperazine (BZP) "legal highs" on the availability, price and strength of BZP in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 144, 47-52
[Journal article]Authored by: Parker, K., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2014). Response to commentaries. Addiction. 109(10), 1593-1594
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2014). A critical first assessment of the new pre-market approval regime for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand. Addiction (Abingdon, England). 109(10), 1580-1586
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2013). The impact of the prohibition of benzylpiperazine (BZP) 'legal highs' on the prevalence of BZP, new legal highs and other drug use in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 127(1-3), 72-80
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Sheridan, J., Adams, P., Russell, B., Ram, S., Newcombe, D., & Wilkins, C. (2013). THE NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE REGIME IN NEW ZEALAND - A NOVEL APPROACH TO DRUG REGULATION?. DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW. 32, 62-63
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sheridan, J., Adams, P., Russell, B., & Newcombe, D. (2013). Reply to Sumnall (2013), 'The New Zealand new psychoactive substances regime - A step in the right direction, but questions still remain'. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27(11), 1078-1079
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sheridan, J., Adams, P., Russell, B., Ram, S., & Newcombe, D. (2013). The new psychoactive substances regime in New Zealand: A different approach to regulation. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27(7), 584-589
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sweetsur, P. (2012). Criminal justice outcomes for cannabis use offences in New Zealand, 1991–2008. International Journal of Drug Policy. 23(6), 505-511
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2012). The impact of the prohibition of benzylpiperazine (BZP) 'legal highs' on the prevalence of BZP, new legal highs and other drug use in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C. (2011). A paradigm shift in recreational drug use: The challenge of legal highs in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal. 124(1339), 99-101
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., & Griffiths, R. (2011). Recent trends in pharmaceutical drug use among frequent injecting drug users, frequent methamphetamine users and frequent ecstasy users in New Zealand, 2006-2009. Drug and Alcohol Review. 30(3), 255-263
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2011). The association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Addiction. 106(4), 789-797
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2010). Differences in harm from legal BZP/TFMPP party pills between North Island and South Island users in New Zealand: A case of effective industry self-regulation?. International Journal of Drug Policy. 21(1), 86-90
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Bouchard, M., & Wilkins, C. (2009). Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. Global Crime. 10(1-2), 1-5
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2008). The association between the number of days of methamphetamine use and the level of earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Bulletin on Narcotics. 60(1-2), 59-78
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2008). Tracking the availability of drugs in New Zealand implications for policy response. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. (34)
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., & Girling, M. (2008). Patterns of benzylpiperazine/trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine party pill use and adverse effects in a population sample in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 27(6), 633-639
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2008). Trends in population drug use in New Zealand: Findings from national household surveying of drug use in 1998, 2001, 2003, and 2006. New Zealand Medical Journal. 121(1274), 61-71
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Girling, M., & Sweetsur, P. (2007). The prevalence of use, dependency and harms of legal 'party pills' containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluorophenylmethylpiperazine (TFMPP) in New Zealand. Journal of Substance Use. 12(3), 213-224
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2007). Individual dollar expenditure and earnings from cannabis in the New Zealand population. International Journal of Drug Policy. 18(3), 187-193
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Sheridan, J., Butler, R., Wilkins, C., & Russell, B. (2007). Legal piperazine-containing party pills - A new trend in substance misuse. Drug and Alcohol Review. 26(3), 335-343
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Sweetsur, P., & Casswell, S. (2006). Recent population trends in amphetamine use in New Zealand: Comparisons of findings from national household drug surveying in 1998, 2001, and 2003. New Zealand Medical Journal. 119(1244)
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2006). Exploring the structure of the illegal market for cannabis. Economist. 154(4), 547-562
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, JL., Rose, EB., & Casswell, S. (2005). Characteristics of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use in New Zealand: Informing policy responses. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. (25), 142-153
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Reilly, JL., Pledger, M., & Casswell, S. (2005). Estimating the dollar value of the illicit market for cannabis in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 24(3), 227-234
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Reilly, JL., & Casswell, S. (2005). Cannabis 'tinny' houses in New Zealand: Implications for the use and sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs in New Zealand. Addiction. 100(7), 971-980
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Pledger, M., Bhatta, K., & Casswell, S. (2004). Patterns of amphetamine use in New Zealand: Findings from the 2001 National Drug Survey. New Zealand Medical Journal. 117(1190)
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Casswell, S., Barnes, HM., & Pledger, M. (2003). A pilot study of a computer-assisted cell-phone interview (CACI) methodology to survey respondents in households without telephones about alcohol use. Drug and Alcohol Review. 22(2), 221-225
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Moewaka Barnes, H., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Casswell, S. (2003). Organized crime in cannabis cultivation in New Zealand: An economic analysis. Contemporary Drug Problems. 30, 757-777
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K., Pledger, M., & Casswell, S. (2003). Ecstasy use in New Zealand: Findings from the 1998 and 2001 National Drug Surveys. New Zealand Medical Journal. 116(1171)
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Casswell, S. (2002). The cannabis black market and the case for the legalisation of cannabis in New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. (18), 31-43
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2002). Designer amphetamines in New Zealand: Policy challenges and initiatives. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. (19), 14-27
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K., & Casswell, S. (2002). The emergence of amphetamine use in New Zealand: Findings from the 1998 and 2001 National Drug Surveys. New Zealand Medical Journal. 115(1166)
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K., & Casswell, S. (2002). A 'demand side' estimate of the dollar value of the cannabis black market in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 21(2), 145-151
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Bhatta, K., & Casswell, S. (2002). The effectiveness of cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand. Drug and Alcohol Review. 21(4), 369-374
[Journal article]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2001). Cannabis transactions and law reform. Agenda. 8(4), 321-331
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2001). A ''new institutional economics'' approach to the reliability of street-level drug transactions. Contemporary Drug Problems. 28(4), 679-693
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Scrimgeour, F. (2000). Economics and the legalisation of drugs. Agenda. 7(4), 333-344
[Journal article]Authored by: Wilkins, C.

Book

Wilkins, C., Rychert, M., Byrska, B., Van Hout, MC., Corazza, O., & Roman-Urrestarazu, A. (2017). Exploring innovative policy responses to NPS and 'legal highs' in New Zealand, Poland, Republic of Ireland and the UK. In Novel Psychoactive Substances: Policy, Economics and Drug Regulation. (pp. 57 - 74).
[Chapter]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, ., Prasad, ., Moewaka Barnes, H., Romeo, JS., & Rychert, . (2017). New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) 2016 Report. : Massey University
[Monograph]Authored by: Moewaka Barnes, H., Romeo Nunez, J., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Prasad, J., Romeo, JS., & Rychert, . (2017). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand, 2006-2016: Findings from the Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). : Massey University
[Monograph]Authored by: Romeo Nunez, J., Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., Rychert, M., Byrska, B., Van Hout, MC., Corazza, O., & Roman-Urrestarazu, A. (2017). Exploring innovative policy responses to NPS and legal highs in New Zealand, Poland, Republic of Ireland and the UK. In O. Corazza, & A. Roman-Urrestarazu (Eds.) Novel Psychoactive Substances. Policy, Economics and Drug Regulation. (pp. 57 - 74). Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature
[Chapter]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Rychert, M., & Wilkins, C. (2017). New Zealand’s pre-market approval regime for low risk new psychoactive substances (NPS, legal highs) – a regulatory alternative to prohibition. In A. Malczewski (Ed.) Monitoring and response to Drugs, Drug Addiction and New Psychoactive Substances (English title) / Monitorowanie problemu narkotyków i narkomanii na poziomie lokalnym oraz przeciwdziałanie narkotykom i „dopalaczom” (Title in Polish). (pp. 171 - 182). Warsaw, Poland: Information Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction
[Chapter]Authored by: Rychert, M., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2013). The seizure rate of cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand, 1998–2009. In World Wide Weed: Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and its Control. (pp. 239 - 256).
[Chapter]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P. (2011). The seizure rate of cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand, 1998-2009. In World Wide Weed: Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and its Control. (pp. 239 - 256).
[Chapter]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Bouchard, M., & Wilkins, CD. (2010). Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. In M. Bouchard, & C. Wilkins (Eds.) Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. (pp. 1 - 4).
[Chapter]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Bouchard, M., & Wilkins, CD. (Eds.) (2010). Illegal markets and the economics of organized crime. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
[Edited Book]Edited by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sheridan, J. (2009). The P problem in New Zealand. In R. Pates, & D. Riley (Eds.) Interventions for Amphetamine Misuse. (pp. 129 - 146). United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
[Chapter]Authored by: Wilkins, C.

Report

Wilkins, CD., Jawalker, S., Moewaka Barnes, H., Parker, K., & Asiasiga, L.(2014). New Zealand arrestee drug use monitoring (NZ-ADUM) - 2013 Report. Auckland, New Zealand: SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, Massey University
[Technical Report]Authored by: Moewaka Barnes, H., Parker, K., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Prasad, J., Wong, K., & Rychert, M.(2014). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand 2006-2013: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 Illegal Drug Monitoring System (IDMS. Auckland: SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, Massey University
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Jawalker, S., & Parker, K.(2013). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand 2006-2012: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University
[Technical Report]Authored by: Parker, K., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, P., Moewaka Barnes, H., Smart, B., Asiasiga, L., & Warne, C.(2012). New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) - 2011 Results. Auckland, New Zealand: SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health, Massey University
[Technical Report]Authored by: Moewaka Barnes, H., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, P., Smart, B., & Warne, C.(2012). Recent Trends in Illegal Drug Use in New Zealand, 2006-2011: Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland: Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE), SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD.(2009). National police apprehensions for cannabis offences in New Zealand 1999-2008.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., Huckle, T., Asiasiga, L., & Griffiths, RD.(2009). The impact of the prohibition of benzylpiperazine (BZP) on the use and harm of BZP in New Zealand.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Huckle, T., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., & Griffiths, RD.(2009). Conviction and sentencing for cannabis use offences in New Zealand 1990-2008.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Griffiths, RD., & Sweetsur, PM.(2009). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand 2006-2008.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD.(2008). A framework for assessing alternative drug control regimes.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., & Girling, M.(2008). Trends in drug use in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., & Girling, M.(2008). Recent trends in illegal drug markets in New Zealand, 2005-2007.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., & Sweetsur, PM.(2007). Recent trends in drug related harm in New Zealand: Key findings from the 2006 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS).
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., & Sweetsur, PM.(2007). Recent trends in drug use in New Zealand: Key findings from the 2006 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS).
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., & Sweetsur, PM.(2006). Recent trends in illegal drug use in New Zealand, 2006: Findings from the combined modules of the 2006 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS): Final report.
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., Huckle, T., & Huakau, J.(2006). Legal party pill use in New Zealand: Prevalence of use, availability, health harms and 'gateway effects' of benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP).
[Technical Report]Authored by: Huckle, T., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sweetsur, PM.(2005). The dollar value and seizure rates of the illicit markets for amphetamine and ecstacy in New Zealand in 2003. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sweetsur, PM.(2005). The illicit market for cannabis in New Zealand: Dollar value and structure of the black market. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R.(2005). Cannabis and other illicit drug trends in New Zealand 2005. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, SHORE
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R.(2005). Hallucinogens and other illicit drug trends in New Zealand 2005. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R.(2005). Methamphetamine and other illicit drug trends in New Zealand 2005. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., & Bala, M.(2005). Recent trends in amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) drug use in New Zealand. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Casswell, S., Lane, RM., Notton, C., Wilkins, CD., Sheeran, JL., Morice, LR., . . . Asiasiga, L. (2004). Pacific drugs and alchol consumption survey 2003: Final report. Pacific Research and Development Services and SHORE/Whariki (Massey University).
[Commissioned Report]Authored by: Casswell, S., Huckle, T., Morice, L., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., Rose, EB., Roy, D., Pledger, MJ., & Lee, A.(2004). The socio-economic impact of amphetamine type stimulants in New Zealand: Final report. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evalulation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., & Rose, EB.(2004). Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) in New Zealand: Secondary analysis of the 2001 National drug survey. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation and Te Ropu Whariki
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Pledger, MJ., Lee, A., Adams, R., & Rose, EB.(2004). A local pilot of the New Zealand arrestee drug abuse monitoring (NZ-ADAM) system. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation and Te Ropu Whariki
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sweetsur, PM.(2003). Drug use in New Zealand: Key results of the 2003 New Zealand health behaviours survey-Drug use. Palmerston North, NZ: SHORE, Massey University
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Rose, EB.(2003). A scoping report on NZ-ADAM. Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Rose, EB.(2003). A scoping report on the Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Auckland, NZ: Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Technical Report]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Casswell, S., Bhatta, K., & Pledger, MJ.(2002). Drug use in New Zealand: National surveys comparison 1998 & 2001. Auckland, NZ: University of Auckland, Alcohol and Public Health Research Unit
[Technical Report]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.

Conference

Wilkins, C., Romeo, JS., Rychert, M., Prasad, J., & Graydon-Guy, T.DETERMINANTS OF HIGH AVAILABILITY OF METHAMPHETAMINE, CANNABIS, LSD AND ECSTASY IN NEW ZEALAND: ARE DRUG DEALERS PROMOTING METHAMPHETAMINE RATHER CANNABIS?. DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW. (pp. S75 - S76). 0959-5236.
[Conference]Authored by: Romeo Nunez, J., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2011, June). Recent trends in drug use in New Zealand, 2006-2010. Presented at Community Epidemiology Working Group (CEWG) annual meeting. Seattle, USA.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2011, May). Seizure rate of the cannabis crop eradication operations in New Zealand, 1998-2009. Presented at 5th Annual International Society for the Study of Drug Policy (ISSDP). Utrecht, Netherlands.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2011, May). Recent trends in New Drugs in New Zealand. Presented at EMCDDA International Mulit-disciplinary Forum on New Drugs. Lisbon, Portugal.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2011, May). The impact of the prohibition of BZP in New Zealand. Presented at EMCDDA International Multidisciplinary forum on New Drugs. Lisbon, Portugal.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2010, June). BZP in New Zealand. Presented at Community Epidemiology Working Group (CEWG) annual meeting. Boston, USA.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P.Criminal justice outcomes for cannabis use offences in New Zealand, 1991-2008.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, C., & Sweetsur, P.(2012). Criminal justice outcomes for cannabis use offences in New Zealand, 1991-2008. Paper presented at the meeting of International Journal of Drug Policy
[Conference Paper]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2009, March). The relationship between spending on methamphetamine and cannabis and aquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Presented at 3rd Annual International Society for Study of Drug Policy (ISSDP). Vienna, Austria.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2007, November). Individual dollar expenditures on drug use and associated criminality of frequent methamphetamine users, frequent ecstasy users and frequent injecting opiate users in New Zealand. Presented at Combined Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs (APSAD) and Cutting Edge Addiction Conference. Auckland, NZ.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2007, November). Trends in population drug use in New Zealand: Findings from national household surveying of drug use in 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2006. Presented at Combined Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs (APSAD) and Cutting Edge Addiction Conference. Auckland, NZ.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2007, March). Exploring the illegal market for cannabis: Implications for cannabis policy and cannabis law enforcement. Presented at 1st Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy. Oslo, Norway.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2006, November). Designing a drug monitoring system for New Zealand: Experience and findings from the 2005 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Presented at Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs (APSAD) Conference. Cairns, QLD.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2006, November). Exploring the structure of the illegal market for cannabis in New Zealand: Middle and retail level cannabis trafficking in a population sample. Presented at Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs (APSAD) Conference. Cairns, QLD.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., & Sweetsur, PM. (2006, November). A legal drug market in New Zealand?: Findings from the 2006 national household survey of BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (triflourophenylmethylpiperazine). Presented at Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs (APSAD) Conference. Cairns, QLD.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2006, September). Recent population trends in amphetamine use in New Zealand. Presented at Australasian Amphetamine Conference. Darling Harbour, Sydney, NSW.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2005, November). Developing a drug monitoring system for New Zealand: Overview of the Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS). Presented at National Drug Trends Conference 2005. Hilton Park, Melbourne, Victoria.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Sweetsur, PM., & Casswell, S. (2005, November). Trends in Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) and other illicit drug use in New Zealand: Findings from national household drug surveying in 1998, 2001 and 2003. Presented at APSAD 2005 Conference. HIlton Park, Melbourne, Victoria.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., & Casswell, S. (2004, June). The impact of drug houses in New Zealand: An economic analysis. Presented at The New Zealand Association of Economists 45th Annual Conference. Wellington, NZ.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Casswell, S., Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2004, May). Implications of the sale of cannabis from drug houses in New Zealand - findings from the 2001 National Drug Survey. Presented at NTPFES - POLICE - 2004 Australasian Drug Strategy Conference. Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2002, June). A new institutional economic analysis of ilicit cannabis cultivation and organised crime in New Zealand. Presented at The New Zealand Association of Economists Conference 2002. Wellington, NZ.
[Conference Oral Presentation]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD. (2002). A new institutional economic analysis of illicit cannabis cultivation and organised crime in New Zealand. New Zealand Association of Economists Annual Conference. (pp. unpaged). Wellington, NZ
[Conference Paper in Published Proceedings]Authored by: Wilkins, C.

Other

Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R. (2005). Key findings from the methamphetamine module of the 2005 Illicit drug monitoring system (IDMS). (pp. 1 - 9). Massey University
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R. (2005). Key findings from the Cannabis module of the 2005 illicit drug monitoring system. (pp. 1 - 10). Massey University, SHORE
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R. (2005). Key findings from the 2005 illicit drug monitoring system (IDMS). (pp. 01 - 13). Massey University, SHORE
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Girling, M., Sweetsur, PM., & Butler, R. (2005). Key findings from the Hallucinogen module of the 2005 illicit drug monitoring system (IDMS). (pp. 1 - 8). Massey University
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., Rose, EB., Roy, D., Pledger, MJ., & Lee, A. (2004). The socio-economic impact of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) in New Zealand: Part III - Future trends in the use and supply of methamphetamine. (pp. 1 - 4). Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., Rose, EB., Roy, D., Pledger, MJ., & Lee, A. (2004). The socio-economic impact of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) in New Zealand: Part II - The black market for ATS and use of ATS by arrestees. (pp. 1 - 4). Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.
Wilkins, CD., Reilly, J., Rose, EB., Roy, D., Pledger, MJ., & Lee, A. (2004). The socio-economic impact of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) in New Zealand: Part I - Level of use and health harms. (pp. 1 - 4). Massey University, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation
[Other]Authored by: Wilkins, C.

Teaching and Supervision

Summary of Doctoral Supervision

Position Current Completed
Supervisor 2 1

Current Doctoral Supervision

Supervisor of:

  • Robin Van Der Sanden - Doctor of Philosophy
    Drug Supply and the Darknet: An analysis of the role of darknet cryptomarkets within the New Zealand drug landscape.
  • Denisse Sanchez Lozano - Doctor of Philosophy
    Investigating New Zealand policy response to methamphetamine contaminated houses

Completed Doctoral Supervision

Supervisor of:

  • 2017 - Marta Rychert - Doctor of Philosophy
    A critical analysis of New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act 2013 and its implementation process

Media and Links

Media

  • 01 Jan 2015 - Television
    Paul Henry breakfast show
    Interview on NBOMe scare and National Addictions Symposium
  • 01 Jan 2014 - Television
    Governent ban of legal highs in May 2014
    TV Breakfast show interview about impact of the Government's ban of legal highs

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